Requirements of the Labour market for Education in Economics in the Czech Republic
Vocational education and training (VET) has a long and well established tradition in the Czech Republic . It plays a significant role, especially at the secondary school level. A prevailing part of the population - 92.5% moves up to the secondary school level after completing basic school. Secondary education is provided by general education schools or by secondary technical and secondary vocational schools. More than 80% of students study in secondary technical or secondary vocational schools, less than 20% in general education schools.
In the last few years there have been efforts in the Czech Republic to reflect labour market requirements in educational programmes. Initial VET is increasingly defined by a logic chain which is also valid in other European countries and in various modifications. At the beginning of the logic chain are jobs. The so called Integrated System of Standard Positions provides job characteristics, description and other important information. Generally, the description of qualification requirements should correspond to the qualifications which are recognised by the state.
A professional profile is very often used regarding qualification as a Czech specific term. It is a certain standard which could influence the aim and content of educational programmes at a nation–wide level. If professional profiles for particular fields of education can be viewed as a certain “order” from the sphere of labour, educational programmes can be perceived as a reaction to them. The system of assessment (examinations) of vocational qualifications (competences), which assures the classification of achievements and their certification, is a logical conclusion following from the aforementioned sequence.
The National Institute of Technical and Vocational Education (NÚOV) guarantees vocational education and training. NÚOV, in cooperation with so called field groups (hereinafter referred to as FG), fulfils its work tasks. Field groups are counselling bodies composed of the representatives of social partners and teachers. There are 25 field groups, e.g. electrical engineering, food and drink industry, civil engineering, textile and clothing, agriculture, etc; they have about 270 co-workers.
One of the FG results is the sectoral study on qualification requirements of related groups of jobs. Information on the requirements of employers for qualification of employees in individual sectors, fields and occupations are very significant for a broad range of users.